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无机及分析化学

Syllabus

 

 

Syllabus for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry

Course Code

Credits:6

Hours:90(teaching hours:90;experimental hours:0 included)

Preceded courses:no

Major:Chemical Engineering

Course material

Inorganic Chemistry: 1. Systematic Inorganic Chemistry, Caven and Lander 2. Inorganic Chemistry, Cotton & Wilkinson 3. Advanced Inorganic chemistry, Malik, Madan and Tuli

Analytical Chemistry: 1. Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, Arthur I Vogel (ISBN 0-582-40710-9) 2. Analytical Chemistry, D. Kealey,P. J. Haines (ISBN 1- 85996-189-4 (Print), ISBN 0-203-68109-6 (Adobe eReader Format)). 3. Modern Analytical Chemistry, David Harvey (ISBN 0–07–237547–7).

SchoolSchool of Computer Science and Telecommunication Engineering

I. Course features and objectives

This course is the required foundation course for students major in Chemical Engineering.

    Through the study of inorganic chemistry, learners can master the elementary concepts, theories and knowledge of inorganic chemistry in a whole, including the thermochemistry, reaction rate, chemical equilibrium, acid-base equilibrium, precipitation-dissolution equilibrium, redox equilibrium, coordination equilibrium, periodic law of elements and substance structure. Furthermore, the major properties, structure, synthesis and application of important elements and their compounds will be mastered. Learners can also train their experimental skills by the experiment courses. All these can be helpful for their consequent courses, work and scientific research.

Analytical processes are important to persons who plan careers in natural sciences, engineering, and medicine. These disciplines require an understanding of detection and estimation, quantitative analysis in particular, of chemical species. It is highly desirable that a science major student should have a course in analytical processes, even when it is not a required course. Analytical chemistry is such a course, and is designed for science major students intending to pursue advanced studies in their respective field, in other institutions of advanced learning.

II. Course elements and requirements

Ch1 Gas and Solution

Master: the partial pressures of components of a gas mixture: Dalton’s Law of partial pressures, mole fractions; the Perfect-Gas Law: the idea gas law the Perfect-Gas Law: the idea gas law; Dalton’s Law of partial pressures.

Be familiar with: Colligative properties: the vapor pressure lowering, boiling-point elevation, freezing-point depression, osmotic pressure, calculating colligative properties.

Ch2 Chemical Thermodynamics

Master:

1. Proper nouns and preliminaries of thermodynamics: system, surrounding, state, state function, process, pathway, phase, extend of reaction.

2. First Law of Thermodynamics: the definition and signs of heat, work and thermodynamic energy, First Law of Thermodynamics.

Be familiar with:

1. Enthalpy, enthalpy change, calculation and characteristics of enthalpy changes, enthalpies of formation, standard enthalpy of formation, the application of Hess’s Law.

2. Spontaneous processes and entropy: the definition and characteristics of spontaneous processes, entropy, third law of thermodynamics, absolute entropy, the calculation of entropy changes in chemical reactions.

3. Gibbs free energy: the definition of Gibbs free energy, standard free energies of formation, ΔGθ calculation, Gibbs equation, ΔG as a criterion for spontaneity, Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constant.

Understand: the isothermal expansion of an ideal gas.

Ch3 Chemical Kinetics

Master:

1. Reaction rates: the definition, the average rate, the instantaneous rate.

2. Rate laws and reaction order: rate law, rate constant, reaction order.

Be familiar with: Determining the rate law: initial-rate method, integrated rate law method, half-life.

Understand:

1. Temperature and rate (a model for chemical kinetics): collision model, energy of activation, orientation effect, temperature, and reaction rate. (the Arrehenius equation).

2. Reaction mechanisms: elementary reactions, reaction mechanisms, elementary step.

3. Catalysis: catalyst, the characteristics of catalysis.

Ch4 Acid-Base Equilibria

Master:

1. Acid-Base concept: Arrhenius concept, Bronsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases, Lewis concept of acids and bases.

2. The amphiprotic characteristics of water: base dissociation constant, acid dissociation constant, ion-product constant for water.

3. Calculating the pH of weak acid solutions: calculating the pH of weak monoacid solutions, common ion effect.

4. Buffered solutions: definition and components of buffered solutions, buffering capacity.

Be familiar with: Relative strengths of acids and bases: acid-base conjugate pair, percent dissociation. Know how to compare the relative strength of acids and bases.

Understand:

1. The pH scale.

2. Calculating the pH of polyprotic acid solutions.

3. The calculation of the pH of a buffered solution (Henderson-Hasselbalch equation).

Ch5 Oxidation-Reduction Reaction

Master:

1. Preliminaries of redox reactions: oxidation, reduction, reducing agent, oxidizing agent.

2. Electrochemical cells: half-reactions, the structure of electrochemical cells, cell potential and its measurement.

3. Standard reduction potentials: definition and measurement, strength of and oxidizing or reducing agent.

4. Uses of standard reduction potentials: spontaneous direction of redox reaction, calculation of cell potentials, standard-potential diagram.

5. The standard-potential diagram and its application.

Be familiar with: Dependence of the cell potential on concentration: Nernst equation and its application, concentration cells.

Understand: Electrochemistry and thermodynamics: cell potential and free energy, equilibrium constants for oxidation-reduction reaction.

Ch6 Structure of Atoms

Master:

1. Electron configurations of atoms: building-up principle, Pauli exclusion principle, electron configurations, the periodic table, exceptions to the building-up principle.

2. Electron diagrams of atoms: Hund’s Law, magnetic properties of atoms.

Be familiar with:

1. The quantum mechanical description of atoms: de Broglie Waves, uncertainty principle, Schrödinger’s equation, wave functions, quantum numbers, electron spin quantum number, atomic orbital shapes and energies.

2. Polyelectronic atoms: effective nuclear charge, penetration effect, energy level overlap.

3. The periodic table: the relationship between the electron configuration and the periodic table. Be capable of ascertaining the location of any element in period table.

4. Periodic trends in atomic properties: ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radius.

Understand:

1. The development of the theories of atomic structure: Dalton’s atomic theory, basic composition of atoms.

2. The birth of the quantum theory: the wave nature of light, the emission spectrum of light, Planck’s constant.

3. The structure of hydrogen atom: the atomic spectrum of hydrogen, Bohr’s model, ground state, excited state, duality principle.

Ch7 Molecular structure

Master:

1. Some preliminaries: chemical bond, ionic bond, covalent bond, metallic bond.

2. Covalent bond: definition, the localized electron bonding model.

3. Predicting the molecular structure with the VSEPR model. 

4. Molecular orbital theory: the basic ideas, bonding and antibonding orbitals, bond order, bonding in homonuclear diatomic molecules, molecular orbital energy-level diagram for homonuclear diatomic molecules

Be familiar with:

1. Description of ionic bonds: formation of ionic bond, ion configurations of main-group elements and transition elements, ionic radii.

2. Describing the valence electron arrangement: Lewis formula, octet rule, skeleton structure of a molecule.

3. Valence bond theory-hybrid orbitals: basic ideas of valence bond theory, formation and types of hybrid orbitals, multiple bonding.

4. Polar covalent bond: electronegativity, polar covalent bond and dipole moment.

Understand: Bone energy: definition.

Ch8 Coordination Compounds

Master:

1. Complex ions and coordination compounds: formation, definition, coordination compound, types of ligands, naming.

2. Structure and isomerism: definition, classification, stereoisomerism and optical isomerism.

Be familiar with: Valence bond theory of complex ions: the formation of coordinate covalent bond, the steric conformation of complex, high-spin and low-spin complex ion, octahedral complexes, tetrahedral and square planar complexes, linear complex.

Understand: The crystal field model: the ideas, effect of an octahedral field on the d orbitals, the distribution of electrons, spectrochemical series.

Ch9 The Main-Group Elements

Be familiar with:

1. The properties of the main-group elements: oxidation states, etc.

2. The properties of group IA elements, the chemistry of hydrogen (preparation, hydrides, etc).

3. The properties of group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA and group VIII A elements.

4. The chemistry of some typical elements: nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.

Ch10 Non aqueous solvent:

Master:  Definition, Classification of solvents, General properties, Chemical reaction, Liquid ammonia as a solvent, Solubilities of substances in liq. NH3,

Be familiar with: Advantages and Disadvantages for using Liquid Ammonia as Solvent, Chemical reaction occurring in liquid ammonia, Acid-base reaction and formation of ammonium salts.

Ch11 Transition Metals

Be familiar with:

1. Properties of the transition elements: ionization energies, electron configurations, oxidation states, atomic radii, melting points, boiling points and hardness.

2. The chemistry of first-row transition metals: important chemical properties of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc.

Ch12 General Discussion of Chemical Analysis

Master: Definition, Basic techniques, Purpose, Application and Scope of analytical chemistry,

Be familiar with: Uses of Common Apparatus in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Selection of the most appropriate analytical method. Sample pre-treatment, sample preparation, sample storage and sampling processes.

Understand: QC/QA procedure implementation, Fundamental knowledge of SI Units,

Ch13 Errors and Data Treatment in Quantitative Analysis

Master: Evaluation of analytical data: Tests of significance, Rejecting data; Significant figures.

Be familiar with: Fundamental terms of errors; Types of errors in experimental data Systematic errors, Random errors

Ch14 Chemical Equilibria and reaction process

Master: Discuss the law of mass action, Enthalpy, Entropy.

Be familiar with: Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Chemistry, What is Standard state and Gibb’s free energy,

Understand: Detail discussion of different Chemical Reactions: Precipitation reactions, Acid-base reactions, and Complexation reactions.

Ch15 Gravimetric Analysis

Master: General principles of gravimetric analysis.

Ch16 Titrimetric Analysis

Master: General principles of Acid-base titration, Complexometric titration, Oxidation-reduction titration, Precipitation titration.

Be familiar with: Relevant terms of titrimetric analysis, the preparation of standard solution and the expression of concentration.

Understand: Applications of acid-base titration, Complexometric titration, Oxidation-reduction titration, Precipitation titration.

Ch17 Solvent extraction process and Chromatographic separation process

Masters: Solvent Extraction techniques, Anion exchanger, Anion and Cation exchange resin,

Be familiar with: Analytical separation process (Chromatographic Process): Ion exchange chromatography. Paper, Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Column chromatography, HPLC chromatography, Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and Gas solid chromatography (GSC) 

Understand: Application of HPLC and GLC & GSC

Ch18 Spectrophotometry

Master: General principles of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometry, Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy.

Be familiar with: Quantitative analysis of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Lambert-Beer's law, Infrared spectrophotometers for qualitative analysis, Qualitative applications to structural analysis.

Understand: Applications of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometry, and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy.

III. Assignment of course periods.

 

Chapters

Lecture

Experiment

Ch1 Gas and Solution

2

 

Ch2 Chemical Thermodynamics

6

 

Ch3 Chemical Kinetics

6

 

Ch4 Acid-Base Equilibria

6

 

Ch5 Oxidation-Reduction Reaction

4

 

Ch6 Structure of Atoms

6

 

Ch7 Molecular structure

6

 

Ch8 Coordination Compounds

6

 

Ch9 The Main-Group Elements

8

 

Ch10 Non aqueous solvent:

3

 

Ch11 Transition Metals

6

 

Ch12 General Discussion of Chemical Analysis

3

 

Ch13 Errors and Data Treatment in Quantitative Analysis

5

 

Ch14 Chemical Equilibria and reaction process

5

 

Ch15 Gravimetric Analysis

2

 

Ch16 Titrimetric Analysis

6

 

Ch17 Solvent extraction process and Chromatographic separation process

4

 

Ch18 Spectrophotometry

6

 

Total:

90

 

IV. Syllabus description (Experimental content, basic requirements, exercise requirements and other necessary explanations may be included):

1. The experimental requirements are contained in the experimental syllabus.

2. A comprehensive experiment that lasts 1.5 weeks is arranged at the end of the course.

3. Teaching by multimedia

4. Appropriate amount of homework is to be assigned ever time after lessons which mainly contains exercises and questions attached in the textbook.